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Cyclometalated complexes of platinum and gold with biological properties: state-of-the-art and future perspectives

Jürgens, Sophie, E. Kühn, Fritz and Casini, Angela 2018. Cyclometalated complexes of platinum and gold with biological properties: state-of-the-art and future perspectives. Current Medicinal Chemistry 25 (4) , pp. 437-461. 10.2174/0929867324666170529125229

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Abstract

The inherent problems accompanying chemotherapy necessitate the development of new anticancer approaches. The development of compounds that can disrupt cancerous cellular machinery by novel mechanisms, via interactions with proteins and non-canonical DNA structures (e.g. G-quadruplexes), as well as by alteration of the intracellular redox balance, is nowadays focus of intense research. In this context organometallic compounds of the noble metals Pt and Au have become prominent experimental therapeutic agents. This review provides an overview of the Pt(II) and Au(III) cyclometalated compounds with a chelating ring containing a strong C-M σ-bond to improve the stability of the compounds with respect to ligand exchange reactions and biological reduction. Furthermore, these properties can be easily tuned by modification of either the anionic cyclometalated or the ancillary ligands. Special focus has been set to C^N, C^N^C, C^N^N and C^N^S platinum(II) and gold(III) pincer complexes regarding their synthesis and biological modes of action as anticancer agents. Methods: A structured search of both chemical and medicinal databases for peer-reviewed research literature has been conducted. The quality of retrieved papers was appraised using standard tools. The synthesis as well as the chemical and biological properties of the described compounds were carefully reviewed and described. The findings were outlined using a conceptual framework. Results: In this review we included 155 papers, the majority originating from high-impact papers on the synthesis and biological modes of platinum(II) and gold(III) compounds. Among them, 17 papers were highlighted to give an introduction to the use of Pt and Au compounds with medicinal properties, mainly focussing on coordination compounds. The synthesis and medicinal properties of organometallic compounds of various metals (such as Fe, Ru, Ti) were outlined in 51 papers. These compounds included metallocenes, metallo-arenes, metallo-carbonyls, metallo-carbenes (e.g. Nheterocyclic carbenes), and alkynyl complexes. The C^N, C^N^C, C^N^N and C^N^S pincer complexes of platinum(II) (46 papers) and gold(III) (44 papers) were discussed concerning their synthesis, stability and advantages to develop therapeutic compounds. We strove to show the consistent development of C^N, C^N^C, C^N^N and C^N^S platinum(II) and gold(III) pincer complexes regarding their synthesis and biological modes from the early beginnings to the most recent findings. Conclusion: This review supplies a profound overview of the development of organometallic compounds for medicinal purposes, setting special focus to the synthesis and stability of C^N, C^N^C, C^N^N and C^N^S pincer complexes of platinum(II) and gold(III) and their use as anticancer agents.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Uncontrolled Keywords: organometallic, cyclometalation, gold, platinum, cancer therapy
Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers
ISSN: 0929-8673
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 21 June 2017
Date of Acceptance: 29 May 2017
Last Modified: 01 Jan 2019 02:31
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/101633

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