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Non-aqueous shale gas recovery system

Al-Dulaimi, Zaid 2017. Non-aqueous shale gas recovery system. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

gh European energy demands, the difference in prices amongst Europe and ambitious gas producers, have produced a scenario of high competition in a region that suffers a lack of fossil resources still required for energy generation. Therefore, other sources are under the scope of various countries to mitigate these issues. Shale gas is one fuel that presents a scenario that would decrease European dependence on imported gas. Although shale gas production is unlikely to give the energy security desired to the whole Europe, it would make a difference for the communities that will adopt it. However, shale gas has acquired a bad reputation with the public, mainly because of its extraction methods. This bad reputation is attributed to hydraulic fracturing, technology well-known as fracking, and its risks associated towards air and water pollution. Therefore, companies, institutions and governments are looking for other alternative methods of extraction with more environmentally friendly processes. Producing extensive high-pressure pulse waves at the base of the wellbore by using detonation is a promising potential technique for shale gas extraction. A fundamental study of deflagration to detonation transition using recirculated shale gas formation with pure oxygen as an oxidiser has been studied to design a system with lower DDT distance and higher pressure waves. Three proposed cases of UK shale gas composition were studied. Chemical equilibrium software GASEQ and chemical kinetic software CHEMKIN-PRO were used to estimate the product parameters. Results showed that the effect produced by diluents, such as carbon dioxide, are eliminated by the use of higher hydrogen content carbon-to-hydrogen species for the three cases proposed. OpenFOAM CFD was used to calculate the deflagration to detonation transition parameters in stoichiometric hydrogen air mixtures to evaluate different obstacle geometries on the transition phenomenon to improve the detonation process. The shape and layout of obstacles were found to have a significant effect on flame acceleration, and subsequent detonation propagation. The interaction of transverse pressure waves generated at the obstructions governs the propagation mechanism. The transverse waves and its frequency appear to play a pivotal role in supporting the detonation wave. H iv It was found that rectangular shape obstacles reduce the reaction time, while triangular ones achieved detonation with the minimum run-up distance. On the other hand, semicircular shape obstacles generate the highest pressure in a detonation tube. The outcome from numerical calculations and CFD were the guide to construct an experimental rig of 21.2mm diameter and 1500mm length tube with different obstacle configurations to demonstrate the concept of pulse detonation for shale rock cracking. Experimental work has been performed to determine the potential of shale gas production in the Dullais Valley, South of Wales. It was found through several tests using BS standard volatile analyses, Transmission Electron Microscopy and pyrolysis RockEval evaluation that the potential of extraction in this region is fair, with similar concentrations of pyrite but with low energy content compared to those resources located in the Midlands and Yorkshire. However, the use of controlled pulse detonation could be the ideal technology for extraction in Wales, as low sulphur (S) content will produce lower unwanted emissions, with a process that can promote opening of pores and further gasification of oil based molecular, with a subsequent increase in shale gas production, topic that requires further research. Finally, a 2-dimensional simulation was performed using ANSYS Parameter Design Language (APDL) to investigate the effect of pressure pulse generated by the detonation tube on a pre-crack. Results showed that the layer close to the applied load will be displaced, which means that it will be smashed. The maximum Von Mises stresses were found to concentrate at the perforating hole corners, while the region immediately after the crack tip is susceptible to compression stresses. The Same behaviour was found for the stress intensity factor. According to that, it is believed that the cracks will propagate diagonally from the perforating hole base. Therefore, the current work has theoretically demonstrated the technology for shale gas recovery, with an optimised geometry consistent of internal obstacles, for a region with potential for shale gas exploitation.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Engineering
Uncontrolled Keywords: Deflagration To Detonation (DDT), Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking), Shale GAs, Shale Formation Cracking, Open Foam, Gaseg & Chimken.
Last Modified: 04 Sep 2017 13:12
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/104172

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