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Maternal demographic and placental risk factors in term low birth weight in Ghana

Aleksenko, Larysa, Tettey, Yao, Gyasi, Richard, Obed, Samuel, Farnell, Damian and Quaye, Isaac Kweku 2017. Maternal demographic and placental risk factors in term low birth weight in Ghana. Journal of Pregnancy and Child Health 4 (3) , 1000325. 10.4172/2376-127X.1000325

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Abstract

Background: Several studies report on factors that associate preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction with low birth weight (LBW). However, few studies discuss risk factors that associate with LBW for full-term births. No such studies exist that involve a population from Ghana. Method: We used a nested case-control study approach to examine maternal socio-demographic and placental factors that contribute significantly to term LBW in Ghana. We assessed also the incidence of LBW in general at a major teaching hospital facility in Ghana. Results: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate maternal sociodemographic and placental factors that associate with LBW. Following the preliminary univariate analysis, a stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that unstable income source, single motherhood, combined effect of pre-eclampsia and anaemia; ORs of 5.366 (95% CI: 1.986 to 14.497), 21.390 (95% CI: 3.610 to 126.734) and 3.246 (95% CI: 1.074 to 9.814), respectively, and placental weight and irregular insertion of the umbilical cord (variables scaled by a factor of 10-2 to aid interpretation) ORs 0.28 (95% CI: 0.115 to 0.683), 0.010 (95% CI: 0.001 to 0.173 respectively) on the chorionic plate, were risk factors for LBW. The socio-demographic and placental factors reveal a core role of maternal and infant nutritional deficiencies in term LBW in Ghana. The general prevalence of LBW in the Hospital facility was 6.2%. Conclusion: We conclude that poor maternal and infant nutrient supply is key factors in term LBW in Ghana. These factors are amenable to appropriate nutritional and educational interventions. a, Tettey Yaob, Gyasi Richard, Obed Samuel, Farnell Damian Joseph John, Quaye Isaac Kweku.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: R Medicine > RG Gynecology and obstetrics
Publisher: OMICS International
ISSN: 2376-127X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 27 October 2017
Date of Acceptance: 14 May 2017
Last Modified: 14 Oct 2019 09:52
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/105994

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