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Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira, de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes, Ferreira, Lorena Lopes, Louly, Carla Cristina Braz, Pickett, John A. and Birkett, Michael A. 2015. Identification of non-host semiochemicals for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Acari: Ixodidae), from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases 6 (5) , pp. 676-682. 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.05.014

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Abstract

Studies have shown that the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, when fed on the beagle breed of dog, Canis lupus familiaris, development negatively affected in comparison with tick development after feeding on the English cocker spaniel breed. Thus leading to the suggestion that beagle dogs are be tick-resistant dogs. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that more ticks are attracted by extracts from cocker spaniels than from beagles and that the odour of beagles is a repellent. To test the hypothesis that resistant hosts produce repellent compounds, we undertook comparative chemical analysis on beagle odour and cocker spaniel extracts using coupled high-resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and also used Petri-dish and olfactometer behavioural assays to assess the response of ticks to identified non-host compounds. The beagle odour extracts contained almost three times as many chemical compounds as cocker spaniel samples. Several non-host compounds were identified, i.e. 2-hexanone, benzaldehyde, nonane, decane and undecane. In Petri-dish assays, 2-hexanone was repellent at 30 min at concentrations of 0.200 and 0.050 mg cm−2, whilst at 10 min, the 0.100 mg cm−2 concentration was repellent. Benzaldehyde repelled ticks at 30 min (0.200 mg cm−2) and at 5 min (0.050 mg cm−2). Undecane was repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. ticks for the first 5 min at the highest concentration tested. Nonane and decane did not show any significant repellency at any concentration or time evaluated. When 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde were combined, an increase in the repellency rate was observed, with activity comparable or better than N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). In olfactometer bioassays, a 1:1 mixture of 2-hexanone:benzaldehyde and DEET were repellent for R. sanguineus s.l. adults at the concentration of 0.200 mg cm−2. This study identified non-host semiochemicals that mediate avoidance of the beagle dog breed by R. sanguineus s.l. This finding may enable development of new approaches to control this tick.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1877-959X
Date of Acceptance: 31 May 2015
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2017 16:02
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/106827

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