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Liposomal delivery of demineralised dentine matrix for dental tissue regeneration

Melling, Genevieve, Colombo, John S., Avery, Steven, Nishio Ayre, Wayne, Evans, Samuel Lewin, Waddington, Rachel and Sloan, Alastair 2018. Liposomal delivery of demineralised dentine matrix for dental tissue regeneration. Journal of Tissue Engineering 24 (13-14) , pp. 1057-1065. 10.1089/ten.TEA.2017.0419

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Abstract

Current dental restorations have short longevity, consequently there is a need for novel tissue engineering strategies that aim to regenerate the dentine-pulp complex. Dentine matrix contains a myriad of bioactive growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins associated with the recruitment, proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp progenitor cells. Here, we show that demineralised dentine matrix (DDM), from non-carious dentine, can be encapsulated into liposomes for delivery to dental tissue to promote regeneration. Liposomes were formulated to encapsulate 0 - 100 μg/mL DDM, lysed with Triton X and used in VEGF and TGF-β1 ELISAs to quantify release. The encapsulation efficiency was calculated to be 25.9% and 28.8% (VEGF/TGF-β1) for 50 μg/mL DDM liposomes and 39% and 146.7% (VEGF/TGF-β1) for 100 μg/mL DDM liposomes. All liposome formulations had no cytotoxic effects on a dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) clone, as shown by MTT, Caspase 3/7 assays and cell counts. The ability of the liposomes to stimulate DPSC chemotactic recruitment was tested by Boyden chamber chemotaxis assays. Unloaded liposomes alone stimulated significant progenitor cell recruitment, while DDM loaded liposomes further promoted chemotactic recruitment in a dose dependent manner. DDM liposomes promoted the upregulation of 'osteodentine' markers osteocalcin and RUNX2 in DPSCs after 9 days of treatment, determined by Real Time quantitative PCR. Furthermore, Alizarin Red S staining showed that unloaded liposomes alone induced biomineralisation of DPSCs and DDM liposomes further increased the amount of mineralization observed. DDM liposomes were more effective than free DDM (10 μg/mL) at activating recruitment and osteogenic differentiation of DPSC, which are key events in the endogenous repair of the dentine-pulp complex. The study has highlighted the therapeutic potential of bioactive DDM liposomes in activating dental tissue repair in vitro, suggesting that liposomal delivery from biomaterials could be a valuable tool for reparative dentistry and hard tissue engineering applications.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Cardiff Institute Tissue Engineering Repair (CITER)
Dentistry
Engineering
Publisher: SAGE Publications (UK and US): Creative Commons Attribution / SAGE Publications
ISSN: 2041-7314
Funders: Medical Research Council (MRC) UK Regenerative Medicine Platform, Acellular Approaches for therapeutic delivery Hub Partnership award and MRC
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 23 January 2018
Date of Acceptance: 29 September 2017
Last Modified: 29 Jan 2019 22:02
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/108404

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