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Keratan sulfate, a complex glycosaminoglycan with unique functional capability

Caterson, Bruce and Melrose, James 2018. Keratan sulfate, a complex glycosaminoglycan with unique functional capability. Glycobiology 28 (4) , pp. 182-206. 10.1093/glycob/cwy003

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Abstract

From an evolutionary perspective keratan sulfate (KS) is the newest glycosaminoglycan (GAG) but the least understood. KS is a sophisticated molecule with a diverse structure, and unique functional roles continue to be uncovered for this GAG. The cornea is the richest tissue source of KS in the human body but the central and peripheral nervous systems also contain significant levels of KS and a diverse range of KS-proteoglycans with essential functional roles. KS also displays important cell regulatory properties in epithelial and mesenchymal tissues and in bone and in tumor development of diagnostic and prognostic utility. Corneal KS-I displays variable degrees of sulfation along the KS chain ranging from non-sulfated polylactosamine, mono-sulfated and disulfated disaccharide regions. Skeletal KS-II is almost completely sulfated consisting of disulfated disaccharides interrupted by occasional mono-sulfated N-acetyllactosamine residues. KS-III also contains highly sulfated KS disaccharides but differs from KS-I and KS-II through 2-O-mannose linkage to serine or threonine core protein residues on proteoglycans such as phosphacan and abakan in brain tissue. Historically, the major emphasis on the biology of KS has focused on its sulfated regions for good reason. The sulfation motifs on KS convey important molecular recognition information and direct cell behavior through a number of interactive proteins. Emerging evidence also suggest functional roles for the poly-N-acetyllactosamine regions of KS requiring further investigation. Thus further research is warranted to better understand the complexities of KS.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISSN: 0959-6658
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 10 May 2018
Date of Acceptance: 8 January 2018
Last Modified: 14 May 2018 13:30
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/111358

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