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An energy-constrained state priority list model using deferrable electrolyzers as a load management mechanism

Wang, Dan, Zhou, Yue, Jia, Hongjie, Wang, Chengshan, Lu, Ning, Sui, Pang-Chieh and Fan, Menghua 2016. An energy-constrained state priority list model using deferrable electrolyzers as a load management mechanism. Applied Energy 167 , pp. 201-210. 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.129

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Abstract

To reduce the consumption of fossil fuel and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, incentive-based policies are used to encourage end-users to utilize more clean energy. Hydrogen energy is an ideal clean energy that can be integrated into the next generation power grid. Deferrable electrolyzers (DEs), as a typical electricity-to-hydrogen conversion devices and capable of modulating power consumption, can convert excessive power to store electricity as hydrogen. Therefore it can be used as a method for load management. The main contribution of this paper is to propose an energy-constrained state priority list (ECSPL) model, for analyzing the charging response of aggregated loads consisting of DE units. The typical hysteresis control of DEs as a load management mechanism is first discussed. A characteristic parameter, i.e. the energy state of DE charging load, is used to group and prioritize the DE units. The proposed ECSPL model optimally determines the operating status of DE charging and standby process, and it maintains the user-desired DE charging trajectory considering customer-constraints. The proposed model maintains the diversity of operating status of DE charging and standby process to prevent unexpected synchronization phenomenon for operating status. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, an estimated baseline of the aggregated DE charging loads is obtained based on natural hysteresis control. The ECSPL control method of DE units for intra-hour load balancing is then evaluated. The effects of different energy-constraints, deadbands of sampled end-use state comparison, error associated with the charging-trajectory measurements are modeled to evaluate the performance of controlled DE group. The ECSPL model is described and demonstrated by the modeling results of investigated DE units.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0306-2619
Date of Acceptance: 20 October 2015
Last Modified: 28 May 2019 11:33
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/111591

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