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Laser powder bed fusion of Hastelloy X: effects of hot isostatic pressing and the hot cracking mechanism

Han, Quanquan, Mertens, Raya, Montero-Sistiaga, Maria L., Yang, Shoufeng, Setchi, Rossitza, Vanmeensel, Kim, Van Hooreweder, Brecht, Evans, Samuel L. and Fan, Haiyang 2018. Laser powder bed fusion of Hastelloy X: effects of hot isostatic pressing and the hot cracking mechanism. Materials Science and Engineering: A 732 , pp. 228-239. 10.1016/j.msea.2018.07.008
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Abstract

Hastelloy X is the trademark for a nickel-based, high-temperature superalloy that is increasingly applied in gas turbine engines because of its exceptional combination of oxidation resistance and high-temperature strength. The superalloy suffers from hot cracking susceptibility, however, particularly when processed using additive manufacturing and laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). This paper systematically studies for the first time the effect of post-treatment hot isostatic processing (HIP) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of LPBF-fabricated Hastelloy X, with an emphasis on fatigue performance. The experimental results demonstrate that despite the very small number of remaining gas-filled micropores due to pressure counteraction, the high temperature and high pressure during the HIP process promote recrystallisation and closing of the internal microcracks and gas-free pores. The HIP-processed specimens are shown to be roughly 130 MPa and 60 MPa weaker than the non-processed specimens in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, respectively. The HIP-processed Hastelloy X exhibits significant improvements in fatigue life, however: the effect of the HIP processing is apparent once the applied stress decreases. This improvement in fatigue performance is attributable to the reduction in stress concentration and residual stress release caused by the HIP process. The paper also studies the hot cracking mechanism and finds that intergranular microcracks generally occur along high angle grain boundaries; the interdendritic liquid pressure drop between dendrite tip and root is found to be a significant factor in the hot crack mechanism. The significance of this research is in developing a comprehensive understanding of HIP processing on the fatigue behaviour of the LPBF-fabricated Hastelloy X. The insights on the cracking mechanism, which presents a significant step towards using additive manufacturing to produce complex crack-free parts from this superalloy.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0921-5093
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 5 July 2018
Date of Acceptance: 3 July 2018
Last Modified: 09 Oct 2018 13:20
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/112993

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