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Trust in an autonomously driven simulator and vehicle performing maneuvers at a T-junction with and without other vehicles

Morgan, Phillip L, Williams, Craig, Flower, Jonathan, Alford, Chris and Parkin, John 2018. Trust in an autonomously driven simulator and vehicle performing maneuvers at a T-junction with and without other vehicles. Presented at: International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, Orlando, FL, USA, 21-25 Jul 2018. Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation. Springer Verlag, pp. 363-375. 10.1007/978-3-319-93885-1_33

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Abstract

Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is developing rapidly. Level 3 automation assumes the user might need to respond to requests to retake control. Levels 4 (high automation) and 5 (full automation) do not require human monitoring of the driving task or systems [1]: the AV handles driving functions and makes decisions based on continuously updated information. A gradual switch in the role of the human within the vehicle from active controller to passive passenger comes with uncertainty in terms of trust, which will likely be a key barrier to acceptability, adoption and continued use [2]. Few studies have investigated trust in AVs and these have tended to use driving simulators with Level 3 automation [3, 4]. The current study used both a driving simulator and autonomous road vehicle. Both were operating at Level 3 autonomy although did not require intervention from the user; much like Level 4 systems. Forty-six participants completed road circuits (UK-based) with both platforms. Trust was measured immediately after different types of turns at a priority T-junction, increasing in complexity: e.g., driving left or right out of a T-junction; turning right into a T-junction; presence of oncoming/crossing vehicles. Trust was high across platforms: higher in the simulator for some events and higher in the road AV for others. Generally, and often irrespective of platform, trust was higher for turns involving an oncoming/crossing vehicle(s) than without traffic, possibly because the turn felt more controlled as the simulator and road AVs always yielded, resulting in a delayed maneuver. We also found multiple positive relationships between trust in automation and technology, and trust ratings for most T-junction turn events across platforms. The assessment of trust was successful and the novel findings are important to those designing, developing and testing AVs with users in mind. Undertaking a trial of this scale is complex and caution should be exercised about over-generalizing the findings.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Psychology
Publisher: Springer Verlag
ISBN: 9783319938844
ISSN: 2194-5357
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 24 July 2018
Date of Acceptance: 28 May 2018
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2019 02:05
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/113418

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