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Array analysis for T-cell associated cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid: Identifying altered profiles associated with periodontal disease status

Koshy, Bindhu, Rees, Jeremy S., Farnell, Damian D.J.J., Wei, Xiao-Qing and Waddington, Rachel J. 2019. Array analysis for T-cell associated cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid: Identifying altered profiles associated with periodontal disease status. Journal of Dentistry 10.1016/j.jdent.2019.04.009
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Abstract

Objective Cytokine networks regulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which in turn are recognised to direct the progression or arrest of periodontal disease. This study aimed to compare the profile of seven cytokines, implicated in regulating T-cell networks, in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples with differing classification of periodontal status. Methods GCF samples were collected from patients with strong clinical evidence for chronic periodontitis, aggressive periodontitis, gingivitis or no gingival inflammation. Cytokines IL-6, IFN-ɣ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-17 A, IL10 and TNFα were measured in each sample using a commercial cytometric bead array assay. Descriptive statistics were used to indicate central tendency, data scatter and analysis of variance for each cytokine concentrations between respective patient groups. Heat maps with dendrograms were produced to visualise hierarchical clustering and trends within the data. Results Median concentrations for all cytokines analysed were highest for gingivitis samples and lowest for aggressive periodontitis samples. The median concentration of IL-6 in gingivitis samples was observed to be 10.5 fold higher (˜17,300 pg/μl) than IL-6 in aggressive periodontitis samples (˜1600 pg/μl). Median concentrations of IL-10, IL-17 A and TNFα were also 2–2.2 fold higher in gingivitis samples compared to aggressive periodontitis. Conclusions Descriptive statistical analysis noted raised concentrations of IL-6, IL-17 A and TNFα associated with gingivitis; pro-inflammatory cytokines usually associated with periodontal tissue destruction, including bone. Our results would suggest that these cytokines can additionally provide protective roles in preventing progression to advanced forms of periodontal disease. Potential for how these cytokines contribute to providing this role is discussed. Clinical significance Defining the roles for the many cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease is far from complete. Consequently the results of this study serve to evidence proposals that cytokines can exhibit both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, which is dependent on the signalling environment within which they exist and the antagonizing or modifying actions of other cytokines. Whilst future research is necessary to explore mechanistic action, our study contributes new knowledge suggesting that IL-6 and IL-17 A can provide roles in stabilising the lesion to limit disease progression, which does not preclude alternative roles in promoting periodontal bone loss in advanced forms of disease progression, which is also documented in the literature.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: In Press
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0300-5712
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 20 May 2019
Date of Acceptance: 23 April 2019
Last Modified: 03 Jul 2019 10:31
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/122671

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