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Application of economic evaluation to assess feasibility for reimbursement of genomic testing as part of personalized medicine interventions

Simeonidis, Stavros, Koutsilieri, Stefania, Vozikis, Athanassios, Cooper, David N., Mitropoulou, Christina and Patrinos, George P. 2019. Application of economic evaluation to assess feasibility for reimbursement of genomic testing as part of personalized medicine interventions. Frontiers in Pharmacology 10 , 830. 10.3389/fphar.2019.00830

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Abstract

Background: The incorporation of genomic testing into clinical practice constitutes an opportunity to improve patients’ lives, as it makes possible the implementation of innovative, individualized clinical interventions that maximize efficacy and/or minimize the risk of adverse drug reactions. In order to ensure equal access to genomic testing for all patients, the costs associated with these tests should be reimbursed by their respective national healthcare systems. Given that funding for the public health sector is decreasing in real terms, it is of paramount importance that the emerging interventions are thoroughly evaluated both in terms of their clinical effectiveness and their full economic cost. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify those genome-guided interventions that could be adopted and reimbursed by national healthcare systems. Further, we recorded the underlying factors determining the broad adoption of genome-guided interventions in clinical practice, in order to identify potential reimbursement criteria. Methods: We performed a systematic review of published (PubMed-listed) scientific articles on the economic evaluation of those individualized clinical interventions that include genomic tests. Information on genomic tests reimbursed by the US Medicare program was also included. Subsequently, we correlated the regulatory guidance given for the interventions collated in our systematic review with the corresponding economic evaluation results and policies of the Medicare program. Regulatory guidance information was collected from the PharmGKB online knowledgebase and the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC). Results: Most of the included studies constitute cost-utility analyses, in which the outcome of the interventions has been measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) whereas an estimate of the total cost has been based upon direct medical cost data. Favorable economic evaluation results, as well as concrete evidence demonstrating the clinical utility of pre-emptive genotyping, are considered as prerequisites for the broad adoption and reimbursement of the costs incurred during genomic testing. Indicatively, pre-emptive HLA-B*5701 and TPMT testing before administration of abacavir and azathioprine, respectively, is reimbursed by Medicare based on both economic and efficacy evidence. Likewise, the medical necessary screening for MMR and BRCA1/2 genes are reimbursed for high-risk populations. Conclusions: Our findings further underline the need for further cost-utility analyses within different national healthcare systems, in order to promote the reimbursement of the cost of innovative genome-guided therapeutic interventions.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: Frontiers
ISSN: 1663-9812
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 6 August 2019
Date of Acceptance: 27 June 2019
Last Modified: 07 Aug 2019 11:00
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/124748

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