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Biocide resistance and transmission of clostridium difficile spores spiked onto clinical surfaces from an American health care facility

Dyer, Calie, Hutt, Lee P., Burky, Robert, Joshi, Lovleen Tina and Nojiri, Hideaki 2019. Biocide resistance and transmission of clostridium difficile spores spiked onto clinical surfaces from an American health care facility. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 85 (17) 10.1128/AEM.01090-19

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Abstract

Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea globally. In unfavorable environments, the organism produces highly resistant spores which can survive microbicidal insult. Our previous research determined the ability of C. difficile spores to adhere to clinical surfaces, finding that spores had markedly different hydrophobic properties and adherence abilities. Investigation into the effect of the microbicide sodium dichloroisocyanurate on C. difficile spore transmission revealed that sublethal concentrations increased spore adherence without reducing viability. The present study examined the ability of spores to transmit across clinical surfaces and their response to an in-use disinfection concentration of 1,000 ppm of chlorine-releasing agent sodium dichloroisocyanurate. In an effort to understand if these surfaces contribute to nosocomial spore transmission, surgical isolation gowns, hospital-grade stainless steel, and floor vinyl were spiked with 1 × 106 spores/ml of two types of C. difficile spore preparations: crude spores and purified spores. The hydrophobicity of each spore type versus clinical surface was examined via plate transfer assay and scanning electron microscopy. The experiment was repeated, and spiked clinical surfaces were exposed to 1,000 ppm sodium dichloroisocyanurate at the recommended 10-min contact time. Results revealed that the hydrophobicity and structure of clinical surfaces can influence spore transmission and that outer spore surface structures may play a part in spore adhesion. Spores remained viable on clinical surfaces after microbicide exposure at the recommended disinfection concentration, demonstrating ineffectual sporicidal action. This study showed that C. difficile spores can transmit and survive between various clinical surfaces despite appropriate use of microbicides.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology
ISSN: 0099-2240
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 24 October 2019
Date of Acceptance: 12 July 2019
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2020 16:47
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/126272

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