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Effects of high glucose conditions on the expansion and differentiation capabilities of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from rat endosteal niche

Al-Qarakhli, Ahmed Makki A, Yusop, Norhayati, O'Brien-Waddington, Rachel and Moseley, Ryan 2019. Effects of high glucose conditions on the expansion and differentiation capabilities of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from rat endosteal niche. BMC Molecular and Cell Biology 20 , 51. 10.1186/s12860-019-0235-y

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Abstract

Background Mesenchymal stromal cells in the endosteal niche lining compact bone (CB-MSCs) represent a heterogeneous population, all of which contribute to bone repair and remodelling. Hyperglycaemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can delay and impair the bone healing process. Therefore, this study investigated the influences of high (25 mM) glucose conditions on CB-MSC populations isolated from male Wistar rats, versus normal (5.5 mM) glucose conditions; in terms of proliferation (population doublings, PDs), senescence characteristics, stem cell marker expression, colony forming efficiencies (CFEs); and osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation, following extended culture in vitro. Results CB-MSCs under both normoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions demonstrated similar morphologies and rapid exponential growth to >300PDs, although high glucose conditions promoted more rapid and persistent proliferation beyond ~50PDs, with few indications of senescence. Limited senescence was confirmed by minimal SA-β-galactosidase staining, low senescence marker (p53, p21waf1, p16INK4a) expression and positive telomere maintenance marker (rTERT, TR) expression. However, telomere lengths varied throughout culture expansion, with hyperglycaemia significantly reducing telomere lengths at PD50 and PD200. Furthermore, CB-MSCs expanded in normal and high glucose conditions remained non-transformed, exhibiting similar MSC (CD73/CD90/CD105), multipotency (CD146) and embryonic (Slug, Snail) markers throughout extended culture, but negligible hematopoietic (CD34/CD45) or pluripotency (Nanog, Oct4) markers. Hyperglycaemia significantly increased CFEs at PD50 and PD100, which decreased at PD200. CB-MSC osteogenic differentiation was also inhibited by hyperglycaemia at PD15, PD100 and PD200, but not at PD50. Hyperglycaemia inhibited CB-MSC adipogenic differentiation to a lesser extent at PD15 and PD50, with reduced adipogenesis overall at PD100 and PD200. Conclusion This study demonstrates the limited negative impact of hyperglycaemia on the proliferative and stem cell characteristics of heterogeneous CB-MSC populations, although minor sub-population(s) appear more susceptible to these conditions leading to impaired osteogenic/adipogenic differentiation capabilities. Such findings potentially highlight the impact of hyperglycaemia on CB-MSC bone repair capabilities in situ.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: Biomed Central
ISSN: 2661-8850
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 8 November 2019
Date of Acceptance: 7 November 2019
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2019 14:11
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/126691

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