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Genetic liability to ADHD and substance use disorders in individuals with ADHD

Wimberle, Theresa, Agerbo, Esben, Thisted Horsdal, Henriette, Ottosen, Cæcilie, Brikell, Isabell, Damm Als, Thomas, Demontis, Ditte, Børglum, Anders, Nordentoft, Merete, Mors, Ole, Werge, Thomas, Hougaard, David, Bybjerg-Grauholm, Jonas, Bækvad Hansen, Marie, Mortensen, Preben, Thapar, Anita, Riglin, Lucy, Langley, Kate and Dalsgaard, Søren 2019. Genetic liability to ADHD and substance use disorders in individuals with ADHD. Addiction 10.1111/add.14910
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Abstract

Aims 1) To investigate whether genetic liability to attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), indexed by polygenic risk scores for ADHD (PRS‐ADHD), is associated with substance use disorders (SUD) in individuals with ADHD. 2) To investigate whether other individual‐ or family‐related risk factors for SUD could mediate or confound this association. Design Population‐based cohort study Setting and participants ADHD cases in the iPSYCH sample (a Danish case‐cohort sample of genotyped cases with specific mental disorders), born in Denmark between 1981 and 2003 (N = 13 116). Register‐based information on hospital diagnoses of SUD was available until December 31, 2016. Measurements We estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for any SUD as well as for different SUD types (alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs) and severities (use, abuse, and addiction), with effect sizes corresponding to a comparison of the highest PRS‐ADHD decile to the lowest. Findings PRS‐ADHD were associated with any SUD (OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.11–1.51). Estimates were similar across different types and severity levels of SUD. Other risk factors for SUD (male sex, age at ADHD diagnosis, comorbid conduct problems, and parental factors including SUD, mental disorders, and socio‐economic status) were independently associated with increased risk of SUD. PRS‐ADHD explained a minor proportion of the variance in SUD (0.2% on the liability scale) compared to the other risk factors. The association between PRS‐ADHD and any SUD was slightly attenuated (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.03–1.41) after adjusting for the other risk factors for SUD. Furthermore, associations were nominally higher in females than in males (ORfemales = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.19–2.12, ORmales = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.98–1.42). Conclusions A higher genetic liability to attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder appears to be associated with higher risks of substance use disorders in individuals with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: In Press
Schools: MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics (CNGG)
Medicine
Psychology
Publisher: Wiley
ISSN: 0965-2140
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 28 November 2019
Date of Acceptance: 15 November 2019
Last Modified: 31 Jan 2020 22:50
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/127215

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