Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Exploring the midline soft tissue surface changes from 12 to 15 years of age in three distinct country population cohorts

Richmond, Stephen, Zhurov, Alexei, Bin Mohd Ali, Azrul, Pirttiniemi, Pertti, Heikkinen, Tuomo, Harila, Virpi, Silinevica, Signe, Jakobsone, Gundega and Urtane, Ilga 2020. Exploring the midline soft tissue surface changes from 12 to 15 years of age in three distinct country population cohorts. European Journal of Orthodontics 42 (5) , pp. 517-524. 10.1093/ejo/cjz080

[img] PDF - Accepted Post-Print Version
Download (435kB)
[img]
Preview
PDF (Fig1) - Supplemental Material
Download (36kB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (Fig2) - Supplemental Material
Download (176kB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (Fig3) - Supplemental Material
Download (124kB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (Fig4) - Supplemental Material
Download (134kB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (Fig5) - Supplemental Material
Download (112kB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (Table1) - Supplemental Material
Download (43kB) | Preview
[img]
Preview
PDF (Table2) - Supplemental Material
Download (53kB) | Preview

Abstract

Introduction Several studies have highlighted differences in the facial features in a White European population. Genetics appear to have a major influence on normal facial variation, and environmental factors are likely to have minor influences on face shape directly or through epigenetic mechanisms. Aim The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to determine the rate of change in midline facial landmarks in three distinct homogenous population groups (Finnish, Latvian, and Welsh) from 12.8 to 15.3 years of age. This age range covers the pubertal growth period for the majority of boys and girls. Methods A cohort of children aged 12 were monitored for facial growth in three countries [Finland (n = 60), Latvia (n = 107), and Wales (n = 96)]. Three-dimensional facial surface images were acquired (using either laser or photogrammetric methods) at regular intervals (6–12 months) for 4 years. Ethical approval was granted in each country. Nine midline landmarks were identified and the relative spatial positions of these surface landmarks were measured relative to the mid-endocanthion (men) over a 4-year period. Results This study reports the children who attended 95 per cent of all scanning sessions (Finland 48 out of 60; Latvia 104 out of 107; Wales 50 out of 96). Considerable facial variation is seen for all countries and sexes. There are clear patterns of growth that show different magnitudes at different age groups for the different country groups, sexes, and facial parameters. The greatest single yearly growth rate (5.4 mm) was seen for Welsh males for men–pogonion distance at 13.6 years of age. Males exhibit greater rates of growth compared to females. These variations in magnitude and timings are likely to be influenced by genetic ancestry as a result of population migration. Conclusion The midline points are a simple and valid method to assess the relative spatial positions of facial surface landmarks. This study confirms previous reports on the subtle differences in facial shapes and sizes of male and female children in different populations and also highlights the magnitudes and timings of growth for various midline landmark distances to the men point.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISSN: 0141-5387
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 18 December 2019
Date of Acceptance: 19 September 2019
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2021 20:19
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/127594

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics