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Evidence for olivine deformation in kimberlites and other mantle-derived magmas during crustal emplacement

Moore, Andy, Yudovskaya, Marina, Proyer, Alexander and Blenkinsop, Thomas 2020. Evidence for olivine deformation in kimberlites and other mantle-derived magmas during crustal emplacement. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 175 (2) , 15. 10.1007/s00410-020-1653-8
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Abstract

This paper highlights published and new field and petrographic observations for late-stage (crustal level) deformation associated with the emplacement of kimberlites and other mantle-derived magmas. Thus, radial and tangential joint sets in the competent 183 Ma Karoo basalt wall rocks to the 5 ha. Lemphane kimberlite blow in northern Lesotho have been ascribed to stresses linked to eruption of the kimberlite magma. Further examples of emplacement-related stresses in kimberlites are brittle fractures and close-spaced parallel shears which disrupt olivine macrocrysts. In each of these examples, there is no evidence of post-kimberlite regional tectonism which might explain these features, indicating that they reflect auto-deformation in the kimberlite during or immediately post-emplacement. On a microscopic scale, these inferred late-stage stresses are reflected by fractures and domains of undulose extinction which traverse core and margins of some euhedral and anhedral olivines in kimberlites and olivine melilitites. Undulose extinction and kink bands have also been documented in olivines in cumulates from layered igneous intrusions. Our observations thus indicate that these deformation features can form at shallow levels (crustal pressures), which is supported by experimental evidence. Undulose extinction and kink bands have previously been presented as conclusive evidence for a mantle provenance of the olivines—i.e. that they are xenocrysts. The observation that these deformation textures can form in both mantle and crustal environments implies that they do not provide reliable constraints on the provenance of the olivines. An understanding of the processes responsible for crustal deformation of kimberlites could potentially refine our understanding of kimberlite emplacement processes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Ocean Sciences
Publisher: Springer Verlag
ISSN: 0010-7999
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 7 February 2020
Date of Acceptance: 11 January 2020
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2020 16:28
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/129413

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