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Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters

Aghanim, N., Akrami, Y., Ashdown, M., Aumont, J., Baccigalupi, C., Ballardini, M., Banday, A. J., Barreiro, R. B., Bartolo, N., Basak, S., Battye, R., Benabed, K., Bernard, J -P., Bersanelli, M., Bielewicz, P., Bock, J. J., Bond, J. R., Borrill, J., Bouchet, F. R., Boulanger, F., Bucher, M., Burigana, C., Butler, R. C., Calabrese, E., Cardoso, J. -F., Carron, J., Challinor, A., Chiang, H. C., Chluba, J., Colombo, L. P. L., Combet, C., Contreras, D., Crill, B. P., Cuttaia, F., de Bernardis, P., de Zotti, G., Delabrouille, J., Delouis, J. -M., Di Valentino, E., Diego, J. M., Doré, O., Douspis, M., Ducout, A., Dupac, X., Dusini, S., Efstathiou, G., Elsner, F., Enßlin, T. A., Eriksen, H. K., Fantaye, Y., Farhang, M., Fergusson, J., Fernandez-Cobos, R., Finelli, F., Forastier, F., Frailis, M., Fraisse, A. A., Fraanceschi, E., Frolov, A., Galeotta, S., Galli, S., Ganga, K., Génova-Santos, R. T., Gerbino, M., Ghosh, T., González-Nuevo, J., Górski, K. M., Gratton, S., Gruppuso, A., Gudmundsson, J. E., Hamann, J., Handley, W., Hansen, F. K., Herranz, D., Hildebrandt, S. R., Hivon, E., Huang, Z., Jaffe, A. H., Jones, W. C., Karakci, A., Keihänen, E., Keskitalo, R., Kiiveri, K., Kim, J., Kisner, T. S., Knox, L., Krachmalnicoff, N., Kunz, M., Kurki-Suonio, H., Lagache, G., Lamarre, J. -M., Lasenby, A., Lattanzi, M., Lawrence, C. R., Le Juene, M., Lemos, P., Lesgourgues, J., Levrier, F., Lewis, A., Liguori, M., Lilje, P. B., Lilley, M., Lindholm, V., López-Caniego, M., Lubin, P. M., Ma, Y. -Z., Macías-Pérez, J. F., Maggio, G., Maino, D., Mandolesi, N., Mangilli, A., Marcos-Caballero, A., Maris, M., Martin, P. G., Martinelli, M., Martínez-González, E., Matarrese, S., Mauri, N., McEwen, J. D., Meinhold, P. R., Melchiorri, A., Mennella, A., Migliaccio, M., Millea, M., Mitra, S., Miville-Deschênes, M. -A., Molinari, D., Montier, L., Morgante, G., Moss, A., Natoli, P., Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U., Pagano, L., Paoletti, D., Partridge, B., Pantanchon, G., Peiris, H. V., Perrotta, F., Pettorino, V., Piacentini, F., Polastri, L., Polenta, G., Puget, J. -L., Rachen, J. P., Reinecke, M., Remazeilles, M., Renzi, A., Rocha, G., Rosset, C., Roudier, G., Rubiño-Martín, J. A., Ruiz-Granados, B., Salvati, L., Sandri, M., Savelainen, M., Scott, D., Shellard, E. P. S., Sirignano, C., Sirri, G., Spencer, L. D., Sunyaev, R., Suur-Uski, A. -S., Tauber, J. A., Tavagnacco, D., Tenti, M., Toffolatti, L., Tomasi, M., Trombetti, T., Valenziano, L., Valiviita, J., Van Tent, B., Vibert, L., Vielva, P., Villa, F., Vittorio, N., Wandelt, B. D., Wehus, I. K., White, M., White, S. D. M., Zacchei, A. and Zonca, A. 2020. Planck 2018 results. VI. Cosmological parameters. Astronomy and Astrophysics 641 , A6. 10.1051/0004-6361/201833910

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Abstract

We present cosmological parameter results from the final full-mission Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies, combining information from the temperature and polarization maps and the lensing reconstruction. Compared to the 2015 results, improved measurements of large-scale polarization allow the reionization optical depth to be measured with higher precision, leading to significant gains in the precision of other correlated parameters. Improved modelling of the small-scale polarization leads to more robust constraints on manyparameters,withresidualmodellinguncertaintiesestimatedtoaffectthemonlyatthe0.5σlevel.Wefindgoodconsistencywiththestandard spatially-flat6-parameter ΛCDMcosmologyhavingapower-lawspectrumofadiabaticscalarperturbations(denoted“base ΛCDM”inthispaper), from polarization, temperature, and lensing, separately and in combination. A combined analysis gives dark matter density Ωch2 = 0.120±0.001, baryon density Ωbh2 = 0.0224±0.0001, scalar spectral index ns = 0.965±0.004, and optical depth τ = 0.054±0.007 (in this abstract we quote 68% confidence regions on measured parameters and 95% on upper limits). The angular acoustic scale is measured to 0.03% precision, with 100θ∗ = 1.0411±0.0003.Theseresultsareonlyweaklydependentonthecosmologicalmodelandremainstable,withsomewhatincreasederrors, in many commonly considered extensions. Assuming the base-ΛCDM cosmology, the inferred (model-dependent) late-Universe parameters are: HubbleconstantH0 = (67.4±0.5)kms−1Mpc−1;matterdensityparameterΩm = 0.315±0.007;andmatterfluctuationamplitudeσ8 = 0.811±0.006. We find no compelling evidence for extensions to the base-ΛCDM model. Combining with baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurements (and consideringsingle-parameterextensions)weconstraintheeffectiveextrarelativisticdegreesoffreedomtobe Neff = 2.99±0.17,inagreementwith the Standard Model prediction Neff = 3.046, and find that the neutrino mass is tightly constrained toPmν < 0.12 eV. The CMB spectra continue to prefer higher lensing amplitudesthan predicted in base ΛCDM at over 2σ, which pulls some parameters that affect thelensing amplitude away from the ΛCDM model; however, this is not supported by the lensing reconstruction or (in models that also change the background geometry) BAOdata.ThejointconstraintwithBAOmeasurementsonspatialcurvatureisconsistentwithaflatuniverse, ΩK = 0.001±0.002.Alsocombining with Type Ia supernovae (SNe), the dark-energy equation of state parameter is measured to be w0 = −1.03±0.03, consistent with a cosmological constant. We find no evidence for deviations from a purely power-law primordial spectrum, and combining with data from BAO, BICEP2, and Keck Array data, we place a limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r0.002 < 0.06. Standard big-bang nucleosynthesis predictions for the helium and deuterium abundances for the base-ΛCDM cosmology are in excellent agreement with observations. The Planck base-ΛCDM results are in good agreement with BAO, SNe, and some galaxy lensing observations, but in slight tension with the Dark Energy Survey’s combined-probe results including galaxy clustering (which prefers lower fluctuation amplitudes or matter density parameters), and in significant, 3.6σ, tension with local measurements of the Hubble constant (which prefer a higher value). Simple model extensions that can partially resolve these tensions are not favoured by the Planck data.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Publisher: EDP Sciences
ISSN: 0004-6361
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 28 April 2020
Date of Acceptance: 20 March 2020
Last Modified: 26 Nov 2020 01:35
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/131263

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