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The prevalence, socio-economic determinants, and related health outcomes of energy drink consumption among young people in Wales and Saudi Arabia: A mixed-method study

Alhumud, Manal 2020. The prevalence, socio-economic determinants, and related health outcomes of energy drink consumption among young people in Wales and Saudi Arabia: A mixed-method study. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

The consumption of energy drinks (EDs) by young people has become a public health concern: United Kingdom (UK) and Saudi Arabia are in the top 10 countries by per capita ED consumption. This study investigated the prevalence of ED consumption and the health and behavioural outcomes among young people by ED consumption in two culturally diverse areas: Wales and Riyadh. A mixed-method design involving cross-sectional studies of young people was used: the Welsh Health Behaviour of School Children (N = 112,045) survey and a cross-sectional survey conducted in Riyadh (N = 2,000). A qualitative study explored the attitudes and perceptions of young people residing in Saudi Arabia. ED consumption was prevalent in Riyadh; 52.5 % reported regular consumption compared to 40% in Wales. In both Wales and Saudi Arabia, ED consumption was positively associated with eating an unhealthy diet (Wales: OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.07; Saudi Arabia: OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.86), nicotine use (Wales: OR 4.66, 95% CI 4.35 to 5.00; Saudi Arabia: OR 5.91, 95% CI 3.47 to 10.07) and negatively associated with eating breakfast (Wales: OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.88; Saudi Arabia: OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.95) and feeling low, irritability and nervousness (Wales: OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99; Saudi Arabia: OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99). Qualitative data indicated that most of the young people in Riyadh had little knowledge about ED active ingredients and associated health outcomes. Results indicated that the availability, affordability and marketing of EDs, along with peer pressure, play a fundamental role in the decision to consume EDs. Since most of the participants reported regular consumption of EDs and acknowledged feeling some adverse health outcomes, there is a public health need to reduce the consumption of EDs.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Date Type: Completion
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: energy drinks; consumption; health outcomes; young people
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 8 July 2020
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2020 08:11
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/133203

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