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Study protocol: azithromycin therapy for chronic lung disease of prematurity (AZTEC) - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of chronic lung disease of prematurity in preterm infants

Lowe, John, Gillespie, David, Hubbard, Marie, Zhang, Lei, Kirby, Nigel, Pickles, Timothy, Thomas-Jones, Emma, Turner, Mark A., Klein, Nigel, Marchesi, Julian R., Hood, Kerenza, Berrington, Janet and Kotecha, Sailesh 2020. Study protocol: azithromycin therapy for chronic lung disease of prematurity (AZTEC) - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of azithromycin for the prevention of chronic lung disease of prematurity in preterm infants. BMJ Open 10 (10) , e041528. 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041528

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Abstract

Introduction Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD), also known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), is a cause of significant respiratory morbidity in childhood and beyond. Coupled with lung immaturity, infections (especially by Ureaplasma spp) are implicated in the pathogenesis of CLD through promotion of pulmonary inflammation. Azithromycin, which is a highly effective against Ureaplasma spp also has potent anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, azithromycin therapy may improve respiratory outcomes by targeting infective and inflammatory pathways. Previous trials using macrolides have not been sufficiently powered to definitively assess CLD rates. To address this, the azithromycin therapy for chronic lung disease of prematurity (AZTEC) trial aims to determine if a 10-day early course of intravenous azithromycin improves rates of survival without CLD when compared with placebo with an appropriately powered study. Methods and analysis 796 infants born at less than 30 weeks’ gestational age who require at least 2 hours of continuous respiratory support within the first 72 hours following birth are being enrolled by neonatal units in the UK. They are being randomised to receive a double-blind, once daily dose of intravenous azithromycin (20 mg/kg for 3 days, followed by 10 mg/kg for a further 7 days), or placebo. CLD is being assessed at 36 weeks’ PMA. Whether colonisation with Ureaplasma spp prior to randomisation modifies the treatment effect of azithromycin compared with placebo will also be investigated. Secondary outcomes include necrotising enterocolitis, intraventricular/cerebral haemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and nosocomial infections, development of antibiotic resistance and adverse reactions will be monitored. Ethics and dissemination Ethics permission has been granted by Wales Research Ethics Committee 2 (Ref 18/WA/0199), and regulatory permission by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (Clinical Trials Authorisation reference 21323/0050/001–0001). The study is registered on ISRCTN (ISRCTN11650227). The study is overseen by an independent Data Monitoring Committee and an independent Trial Steering Committee. We shall disseminate our findings via national and international peer-reviewed journals, and conferences. A summary of the findings will also be posted on the trial website.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Medicine
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN: 2044-6055
Funders: NIHRH
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 21 October 2020
Date of Acceptance: 14 August 2020
Last Modified: 22 Oct 2020 09:30
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/135824

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