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'Marks of extreme violence': Charles Darwin's geological observations at St Jago (São Tiago), Cape Verde islands

Pearson, Paul Nicholas and Nicholas, C. J. 2007. 'Marks of extreme violence': Charles Darwin's geological observations at St Jago (São Tiago), Cape Verde islands. In: Wyse Jackson, Patrick N. ed. Four Centuries of Geological Travel: The Search for Knowledge on Foot, Bicycle, Sledge and Camel, Geological Society Special Publication, vol. 287. London: Geological Society, pp. 239-253. (10.1144/SP287.19)

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Abstract

The first stop on Charles Darwin's famous voyage around the world in HMS Beagle was at Porto Praya (Praia), the principal town on the island of St Jago (São Tiago) in the Cape Verde archipelago. From 16 January to 8 February 1832, Darwin enjoyed his first substantive opportunity to study the natural history of an exotic place. Darwin himself regarded this occasion as a significant turning point in his life because, according to his autobiography, it was here that he decided to research and publish a book on the geology of the places visited on the voyage. He also recalled that it was here, the very first port call, that convinced him of the ‘wonderful superiority’ of Charles Lyell's uniformitarian geology over the doctrine of successive cataclysms that he had been taught in England. Later commentators have generally accepted this account, which is significant for understanding the intellectual background to the Origin of Species, at face value. In this paper we reconstruct some of Darwin's observations at St Jago based on his contemporaneous notes and diary, and in the light of our own visit made in January 2002. We find little evidence to substantiate the claim that he interpreted the geology in Lyellian terms at the time. Instead, he formulated a theory involving a great cataclysm to explain the dramatic scenery in the island's interior. He speculated that a torrent of water had carved the main valleys of the island, leaving deposits of diluvium in their beds. It is indisputable that Darwin came to embrace gradualist thinking enthusiastically during the voyage. Some of his observations made on St Jago, especially relating to uplift of the coast, were instrumental in this change of view, but the conversion was gradual, not sudden. His later published works make no mention of his original catastrophist interpretations.

Item Type: Book Section
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Ocean Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Publisher: Geological Society
ISBN: 9781862392342
Related URLs:
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 03:00
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/15227

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