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Experimental Charge Density Analysis of a Gallium(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Analogue

Overgaard, Jacob, Jones, Cameron, Dange, Deepak and Platts, James Alexis 2011. Experimental Charge Density Analysis of a Gallium(I) N-Heterocyclic Carbene Analogue. Inorganic Chemistry 50 (17) , pp. 8418-8426. 10.1021/ic2009946

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Abstract

The experimental electron density of the only known example of a four-membered Ga(I) N-heterocyclic carbene analogue has been determined by multipole modeling of 90 K X-ray diffraction data and compared to theoretical data. In order to obtain a satisfactory model, it is necessary to modify the radial dependency of the core electrons of Ga using two separate scaling parameters for s,p- and d-electrons. Evidence for significant lone-pair density on Ga is found in the electron density and derived properties despite the partial positive charge of this atom. Static deformation density and molecular electrostatic potential clearly show a directional lone pair on Ga, whereas the Laplacian of the total electron density does not; this feature is, however, present in the Laplacian of the valence-only density. The Ga center also acts as an acceptor in four intramolecular C–H···Ga contacts, whose nature is probed by density properties. Substantial covalent character is apparent in the Ga–N bonds, but no sign of donation from filled N p-orbitals to empty Ga p-orbitals is found, whereas π-delocalization over the organic ligand is evident. This study highlights the utility of experimental charge density analysis as a technique to investigate the unusual bonding and electronic characteristics of low oxidation state/low coordinate p-block complexes.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 0020-1669
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 03:09
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/17348

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