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3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging

Goodall, Nicola, Kisiswa, Lilian, Prashar, Ankush, Faulkner, Stuart Daniel, Tokarczuk, Pawel Franciszek, Singh, Krish Devi, Erichsen, Jonathan Thor, Guggenheim, Jeremy Andrew, Halfter, Willi and Wride, Michael A. 2009. 3-Dimensional modelling of chick embryo eye development and growth using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Experimental Eye Research 89 (4) , pp. 511-521. 10.1016/j.exer.2009.05.014

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Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for generating 3-dimensional structural and functional image data. MRI has already proven valuable in creating atlases of mouse and quail development. Here, we have exploited high resolution MRI to determine the parameters necessary to acquire images of the chick embryo eye. Using a 9.4 Tesla (400 MHz) high field ultra-shielded and refrigerated magnet (Bruker), MRI was carried out on paraformaldehyde-fixed chick embryos or heads at E4, E6, E8, and E10. Image data were processed using established and custom packages (MRICro, ImageJ, ParaVision, Bruker and mri3dX). Voxel dimensions ranged from 62.5 μm to 117.2 μm. We subsequently used the images obtained from the MRI data in order to make precise measurements of chick embryo eye surface area, volume and axial length from E4 to E10. MRI was validated for accurate sizing of ocular tissue features by direct comparison with previously published literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate the utility of high resolution MRI for making accurate measurements of morphological changes due to experimental manipulation of chick eye development, thereby facilitating a better understanding of the effects on chick embryo eye development and growth of such manipulations. Chondroitin sulphate or heparin were microinjected into the vitreous cavity of the right eyes of each of 3 embryos at E5. At E10, embryos were fixed and various eye parameters (volume, surface area, axial length and equatorial diameter) were determined using MRI and normalised with respect to the un-injected left eyes. Statistically significant alterations in eye volume (p < 0.05; increases with chondroitin sulphate and decreases with heparin) and changes in vitreous homogeneity were observed in embryos following microinjection of glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, in the heparin-injected eyes, significant disturbances at the vitreo-retinal boundary were observed as well as retinal folding and detachment confirming histological observations. These data reveal the utility and superiority of MRI for producing images enabling quantification of experimentally induced changes in eye volume and structure. The results indicate that MRI is an important tool that could become a routine approach for rapid and sensitive phenotypic analysis of normal chick ocular development and morphology as well as potentially the effects of surgical or genetic manipulations of chick embryo eyes in live embryos in ovo.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Optometry and Vision Sciences
Psychology
Biosciences
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (NMHRI)
Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre (CUBRIC)
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Uncontrolled Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; MRI; chick; embryo; development; eye; lens; growth
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0014-4835
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2018 20:34
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/18363

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