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Topographical and functional characterization of the ssDNA probe layer generated through EDC-mediated covalent attachment to nanocrystalline diamond using fluorescence microscopy

Vermeeren, V., Wenmackers, S., Daenen, M., Haenen, K., Williams, Oliver Aneurin, Ameloot, M., vandeVen, M., Wagner, P. and Michiels, L. 2008. Topographical and functional characterization of the ssDNA probe layer generated through EDC-mediated covalent attachment to nanocrystalline diamond using fluorescence microscopy. Langmuir 24 (16) , pp. 9125-9134. 10.1021/la800946v

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Abstract

The covalent attachment method for DNA on nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), involving the introduction of COOH functionalities on the surface by photoattachment of 10-undecenoic acid (10-UDA), followed by the 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)-mediated coupling to NH2-labeled ssDNA, is evaluated in terms of stability, density, and functionality of the resulting biological interface. This is of crucial importance in DNA biosensor development. The covalent nature of DNA attachment will infer the necessary stability and favorable orientation to the ssDNA probe molecules. Using confocal fluorescence microscopy, the influence of buffer type for the removal of excess 10-UDA and ssDNA, the probe ssDNA length, the probe ssDNA concentration, and the presence of the COOH-linker on the density and functionality of the ssDNA probe layer were investigated. It was determined that the most homogeneously dense and functional DNA layer was obtained when 300 pmol of short ssDNA was applied to COOH-modified NCD samples, while H-terminated NCD was resistant for DNA attachment. Exploiting this surface functionality dependence of the DNA attachment efficiency, a shadow mask was applied during the photochemical introduction of the COOH-functionalities, leaving certain regions on the NCD H-terminated. The subsequent DNA attachment resulted in a fluorescence pattern corresponding to the negative of the shadow mask. Finally, NCD surfaces covered with mixtures of the 10-UDA linker molecule and a similar molecule lacking the COOH functionality, functioning as a lateral spacer, were examined for their suitability in preventing nonspecific adsorption to the surface and in decreasing steric hindrance. However, purely COOH-modified NCD samples, patterned with H-terminated regions and treated with a controlled amount of probe DNA, proved the most efficient in fulfilling these tasks.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISSN: 0743-7463
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 03:14
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/18708

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