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Glutamate signalling and its potential application to tissue engineering of bone

Mason, Deborah Jane 2004. Glutamate signalling and its potential application to tissue engineering of bone. European Cells and Materials 7 , pp. 12-26.

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Abstract

Mechanical loading of the skeleton is important for maintenance of adequate bone mass and defined mechanical stimuli are highly osteogenic. The identification of mechanoresponsive signalling molecules in bone may allow osteogenic signals to be mimicked. This approach would be useful in the treatment of bone pathologies where the skeleton is too weak to withstand osteogenic forces and to tissue engineering of bone where the mechanical environment of bone cells is disrupted. Glutamate has been implicated as a mediator of mechanical signalling in bone. Evidence for glutamate signalling in bone, its role in mechanotransduction and potential applications of this pathway to tissue engineering of bone is considered in this review. Glutamate receptors, transporters and proteins that regulate glutamate release, are all expressed in bone cells. Glutamate receptor activation affects both osteoblast and osteoclast phenotypes revealing a potential for therapeutic manipulation of glutamate signalling to enhance bone formation. Glutamate transporters contribute to this system by regulating extracellular glutamate concentrations and acting as glutamate-gated ion channels. Artificial regulation of glutamate receptors or transporters may be used to increase the bone forming capacity of osteoblasts. This novel approach may potentially enhance bone tissue engineering strategies.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: glutamate; bone tissue engineering; glutamate transporters; glutamate receptors; osteocytes; osteoblasts; osteoclasts; ion channels; mechanical load
Publisher: AO Foundation
ISSN: 1473-2262
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 03:50
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/27768

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