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The Children's Low Vision Project in Wales: Evaluation of a multi-disciplinary training programme & the provision of eye care services in special schools in Wales

Davies, Nathan 2013. The Children's Low Vision Project in Wales: Evaluation of a multi-disciplinary training programme & the provision of eye care services in special schools in Wales. MPhil Thesis, Cardiff University.
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Abstract

This thesis reports two research projects undertaken between 2009 and 2011. The thesis is split into two distinct sections: Section A: Evaluation of a multi-disciplinary training programme using the Kirkpatrick four-level approach Purpose Ten multi-disciplinary training days took place throughout Wales as part of the Welsh Low Vision Service and Children’s Low Vision Project. This study evaluated the training using the Kirkpatrick four-level approach to identify participants’ reactions to the training (level 1), learning (2), behavioural change (3) and the impact on referral processes and multi-disciplinary working (4). It also aimed to identify whether causal relationships existed between these levels. Methods A 27-item questionnaire was administered to all participants at each training day to collect level 1 reaction data and level 2 data about learning. One year after the training, profession-specific postal questionnaires were administered to evaluate the impact of the training on behavioural change (level 3), referral processes and multi-disciplinary working (level 4). Data about referrals, provided by the Welsh Low Vision Service, were also analysed. Results Positive evaluations at each of the four levels showed that the training achieved its objectives. Reported ‘relevance’ of the training (level 1) was more indicative of whether learning took place than ‘enjoyment’. Lack of opportunity to use new skills in the workplace was the major barrier to level 3 behavioural change (training transfer). The study found limited causality between the four levels. Conclusions Although the Kirkpatrick four-level approach provided a useful evaluation framework, modifications to it enabled a more robust evaluation to be carried out. Section B: Sight problems among children and young people with special educational needs and a survey of special schools in Wales Purpose Children and young people with special educational needs (SEN) are more likely to have sight problems than children and young people without SEN. This study collected data about the prevalence of sight problems among pupils in special schools in Wales and the provision of eye care services such as vision screening. Methods A literature review about sight problems among children and young people with SEN was conducted. A 21-item postal questionnaire was sent to the 44 maintained special schools in Wales to collect data about sight problems among the pupils and information about the provision of eye care services. Results A response rate of 88.6% (n=39) was achieved. Just over half the schools (52.6%, n=20) reported that vision screening took place and almost half (47.4%, n=9) reported that vision screening was carried out by orthoptists. The prevalence of identified and corrected refractive error among pupils was 22.45%. The prevalence of known visual impairment (as a special educational need) was 6.1%. There was limited use of low vision aids by pupils. The study showed that inter-disciplinary communication could be improved. Conclusions The provision of eye care services for pupils in special schools in Wales was patchy and inconsistent. The survey indicated that there were likely to be pupils in special schools with uncorrected refractive error and undiagnosed sight problems. This provided the evidence base for a pilot ‘vision care programme’ for pupils in special schools. The pilot model is being currently being modified by a planning group with the aim of delivering an eye care service in every special school in Wales.

Item Type: Thesis (MPhil)
Status: Unpublished
Schools: Optometry and Vision Sciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RE Ophthalmology
Uncontrolled Keywords: Keywords: Children’s Low Vision Project in Wales Low Vision Service Wales Low vision Sight impaired Severely sight impaired Blind Partially sighted Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Andragogy Adult learning Training programmes Evaluating training Kirkpatrick (four level approach) Reactions, learning, behaviour, results Training transfer Postal questionnaire Multi-disciplinary working Referral pathways Low vision practitioners, Qualified Teachers of pupils with Visual Impairment (QTVI), rehabilitation officers, mobility specialists Low vision aids Low Vision Toolkit Keeler, Norville, Compact Plus Amsler chart Special Educational Needs (SEN) Special Educational Needs Code of Practice Special schools Special schools in Wales Learning disabilities Autistic Spectrum Disorder Cerebral Palsy Children’s vision screening Eye care services Vision care programme Sight loss, sight impaired, severely sight impaired, visual impairment, low vision Refractive errors Ocular conditions Cerebral Visual Impairment Prevalence of sight problems among children and young people
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 19 Mar 2016 23:38
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/59029

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