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Promoter shuffling has occurred during the evolution of the vertebrate growth hormone gene

Chuzhanova, Nadia A., Krawczak, M., Nemytikova, L.A., Gusev, V. D. and Cooper, David Neil 2000. Promoter shuffling has occurred during the evolution of the vertebrate growth hormone gene. Gene 254 (1-2) , pp. 9-18. 10.1016/s0378-1119(00)00308-5

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Abstract

Comparative studies of vertebrate gene promoter regions seldom detect gross rearrangements ('promoter shuffling') since such analyses usually employ relatively similar DNA sequences. Conversely, attempts to compare evolutionarily more divergent promoter sequences have been largely unsuccessful owing to the inability of conventional alignment procedures to deal with gross rearrangements. These limitations have been circumvented in the present study by using the novel technique of complexity analysis to identify modular components ('blocks') in the growth hormone (GH) gene promoter sequences of some 22 vertebrate species, from salmon to human. Significant rearrangement of blocks was found to have occurred, indicating that they have evolved as independent units. Some blocks appear to be ubiquitous, whereas others are restricted to a specific taxon. Considerable variation between orthologous GH gene promoters was apparent in terms of block length, copy number and relative location. It may be inferred that a wide variety of different mutational mechanisms have operated upon the GH gene promoter over evolutionary time. These include gross changes such as deletion, duplication, amplification, elongation, contraction, transposition, inversion and fusion, as well as the slow, steady accumulation of single base-pair substitutions. Thus the patchwork structure of the modular GH promoter region, and those of its paralogous GH2 and prolactin (PRL) counterparts, have continually been shuffled into new combinations through the rearrangement of pre-existing blocks. Although some of these changes may have had no influence on promoter function, others could have served to alter either the level of gene expression or the responsiveness of the promoter to external stimuli.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Computer Science & Informatics
Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0378-1119
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 06:31
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/61433

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