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Evolution of the proximal promoter region of the mammalian growth hormone gene

Krawczak, M., Chuzhanova, N. A. and Cooper, David Neil 1999. Evolution of the proximal promoter region of the mammalian growth hormone gene. Gene 237 (1) , pp. 143-151. 10.1016/s0378-1119(99)00313-3

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Abstract

The evolutionary relationship between the proximal growth hormone (GH) gene promoter sequences of 12 mammalian species was explored by comparison of their trinucleotide composition and by multiple sequence alignment. Both approaches yielded results that were consistent with the known fossil record-based phylogeny of the analysed sequences, suggesting that the two methods of tree reconstruction might be equally efficient and reliable. The pattern of evolution inferred for the mammalian GH gene promoters was found to vary both temporally and spatially. Thus, two distinct regions devoid of any evolutionary changes exist in primates, but only one of these 'gaps' is also observed in rodents, and neither is seen in ruminants. Furthermore, different evolutionary rates must have prevailed during different periods of evolutionary time and in different lineages, with a dramatic increase in evolutionary rate apparent in primates. Since a similar pattern of discontinuity has been previously noted for the evolution of the GH-coding regions, it may reflect the action of positive selection operating upon the GH gene as a single cohesive unit. Strong evidence for the action of gene conversion between primate GH gene promoters is provided by the fact that the human GH1 and GH2 sequences, which are thought to have diverged before the divergence of Old World monkeys from great apes, are more similar to one another than either is to the rhesus monkey GH2 promoter. Finally, it was noted that a number of nucleotide positions in the GH1 gene promoter that are polymorphic in humans appear to be highly conserved in mammals. This apparent conundrum, which could represent a caveat for the interpretation of phylogenetic footprinting studies, is potentially explicable in terms either of reduced genetic diversity in highly inbred animal species or insufficient population data from non-human species.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0378-1119
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 06:31
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/61440

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