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Unravelling the brain targets of γ-hydroxybutyric acid

Crunelli, Vincenzo, Emri, Z. and Leresche, N. 2006. Unravelling the brain targets of γ-hydroxybutyric acid. Current Opinion in Pharmacology 6 (1) , pp. 44-52. 10.1016/j.coph.2005.10.001

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Abstract

γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolite that has been proposed as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator that acts via its own receptor (GHBR). Its exogenous administration, however, elicits central nervous system-dependent effects (e.g. memory impairment, increase in sleep stages 3 and 4, dependence, seizures and coma) that are mostly mediated by GABAB receptors. The past few years have seen important developments in our understanding of GHB neurobiology: a putative GHBR has been cloned; a transgenic model of GHB aciduria has been developed; GABAB receptor knockout mice and novel GHB analogs have helped to characterize the vast majority of exogenous GHB actions mediated by GABAB receptors; and some of the cellular mechanisms underlying the dependence/abuse properties of GHB, and its ability to elicit absence seizures and an increase in sleep stages 3 and 4, have been clarified. Nevertheless, the physiological significance of a brain GHB signaling pathway is still unknown, and there is an urgent need for a well-validated functional assay for GHBRs. Moreover, as GHB can also be metabolized to GABA, it remains to be seen whether the many GABAB receptor-mediated actions of GHB are caused by GHB itself acting directly on GABAB receptors or by a GHB-derived GABA pool (or both).

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (NMHRI)
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1471-4892
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 06:34
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/62341

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