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Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8

Magee, J. T., Pritchard, E. L., Fitzgerald, K. A., Dunstan, Frank David John and Howard, A. J. 1999. Antibiotic prescribing and antibiotic resistance in community practice: retrospective study, 1996-8. BMJ 319 (7219) , pp. 1239-1240. 10.1136/bmj.319.7219.1239

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Abstract

Data on the susceptibility to antibiotics of coliform organisms in routine urine samples taken by general practitioners for diagnosis of urinary tract infections were collected from the Bangor, Cardiff, and Rhyl Public Health Laboratories and the East Glamorgan, Prince Charles, and Wrexham Maelor Hospitals. Data on the prescribing practices of surgeries were obtained from the Welsh Prescription Pricing Service Rates of prescribing (the number of prescriptions/1000 patients per year) and resistance rates (which excluded multiple isolates of organisms with the same susceptibility from the same patient) were calculated for each surgery. The use of broad spectrum penicillin formulations without a β lactamase inhibitor (such as ampicillin and amoxicillin) was estimated by subtracting the number of prescriptions for co-amoxiclav from the total number of prescriptions for all other broad spectrum penicillins. We use the term amoxicillin below to refer to these broad spectrum penicillins without a β lactamase inhibitor. Resistance rates for surgeries which were based on fewer than 50 isolates were excluded, leaving data on about 30 000 isolates from 190 general practitioner surgeries serving about 1 200 000 patients. We sought to identify the effects of bias caused by the selective submission of urine samples by examining the relation between resistance rates and sampling (number of urine specimens/1000 registered patients) and the relation between positivity (number of coliform isolates/100 samples or 1000 registered patients) and prescribing or sampling. The use of antibiotics and rates of resistance to antibiotics varied between surgeries; the correlation between the prescribing of an antibiotic and resistance to the same antibiotic was often significant (table) The correlation was also significant between the use of amoxicillin and resistance to trimethoprim and vice versa. Combined resistance to ampicillin and trimethoprim occurred in 21% (6782/32 532) of isolates and was significantly associated with the use of both trimethoprim and amoxicillin (P<0.001). The correlation between the use of amoxicillin and resistance to trimethoprim and vice versa was lost when strains exhibiting combined resistance to both agents were removed from the analysis.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RZ Other systems of medicine
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
ISSN: 0959-8138
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 06:41
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/63731

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