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Cytokines in atherosclerosis: key players in all stages of disease and promising therapeutic targets

Ramji, Dipak Purshottam and Davies, Thomas S. 2015. Cytokines in atherosclerosis: key players in all stages of disease and promising therapeutic targets. Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews 26 (6) , pp. 673-685. 10.1016/j.cytogfr.2015.04.003

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Abstract

Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disorder of the arteries, is responsible for most deaths in westernized societies with numbers increasing at a marked rate in developing countries. The disease is initiated by the activation of the endothelium by various risk factors leading to chemokine-mediated recruitment of immune cells. The uptake of modified lipoproteins by macrophages along with defective cholesterol efflux gives rise to foam cells associated with the fatty streak in the early phase of the disease. As the disease progresses, complex fibrotic plaques are produced as a result of lysis of foam cells, migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and continued inflammatory response. Such plaques are stabilized by the extracellular matrix produced by smooth muscle cells and destabilized by matrix metalloproteinase from macrophages. Rupture of unstable plaques and subsequent thrombosis leads to clinical complications such as myocardial infarction. Cytokines are involved in all stages of atherosclerosis and have a profound influence on the pathogenesis of this disease. This review will describe our current understanding of the roles of different cytokines in atherosclerosis together with therapeutic approaches aimed at manipulating their actions.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Subjects: R Medicine > RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 1359-6101
Funders: British Heart Foundation
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 27 April 2015
Last Modified: 28 Jun 2019 03:23
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/73430

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