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A rapid crosstalk of human gamma delta T cells and monocytes drives the acute inflammation in bacterial infections

Eberl, Matthias, Roberts, Gareth Wyn, Meuter, Simone, Williams, John David, Topley, Nicholas and Moser, Bernhard 2009. A rapid crosstalk of human gamma delta T cells and monocytes drives the acute inflammation in bacterial infections. Plos Pathogens 5 (2) , p. 6. 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000308

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Abstract

Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells are a minor subset of T cells in human blood and differ from other T cells by their immediate responsiveness to microbes. We previously demonstrated that the primary target for Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells is (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), an essential metabolite produced by a large range of pathogens. Here we wished to study the consequence of this unique responsiveness in microbial infection. The majority of peripheral Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells shares migration properties with circulating monocytes, which explains the presence of these two distinct blood cell types in the inflammatory infiltrate at sites of infection and suggests that they synergize in anti-microbial immune responses. Our present findings demonstrate a rapid and HMB-PP-dependent crosstalk between Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells and autologous monocytes that results in the immediate production of inflammatory mediators including the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and oncostatin M (OSM); the chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, and CXCL10; and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Moreover, under these co-culture conditions monocytes differentiate within 18 hours into inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs) with antigen-presenting functions. Addition of further microbial stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan) induces CCR7 and enables these inflammatory DCs to trigger the generation of CD4+ effector αβ T cells expressing IFN-γ and/or IL-17. Importantly, our in vitro model replicates the responsiveness to microbes of effluent cells from peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and translates directly to episodes of acute PD-associated bacterial peritonitis, where Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell numbers and soluble inflammatory mediators are elevated in patients infected with HMB-PP-producing pathogens. Collectively, these findings suggest a direct link between invading pathogens, microbe-responsive γδ T cells, and monocytes in the inflammatory infiltrate, which plays a crucial role in the early response and the generation of microbe-specific immunity.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Systems Immunity Research Institute (SIURI)
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Additional Information: © 2009 Eberl et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Publisher: Public Library of Science
ISSN: 1553-7366
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Date of Acceptance: 22 January 2009
Last Modified: 22 Dec 2017 20:22
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/74191

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