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Dephosphorylation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate by MIPP expands the regulatory capacity of the Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt

Cho, Jalesoon, King, Jason, Qian, Xun, Harwood, Adrian John and Shears, Stephen B. 2008. Dephosphorylation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate by MIPP expands the regulatory capacity of the Rapoport-Luebering glycolytic shunt. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (16) , pp. 5998-6003. 10.1073/pnas.0710980105

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Abstract

The Rapoport–Luebering glycolytic bypass comprises evolutionarily conserved reactions that generate and dephosphorylate 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG). For >30 years, these reactions have been considered the responsibility of a single enzyme, the 2,3-BPG synthase/2-phosphatase (BPGM). Here, we show that Dictyostelium, birds, and mammals contain an additional 2,3-BPG phosphatase that, unlike BPGM, removes the 3-phosphate. This discovery reveals that the glycolytic pathway can bypass the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate, which is a precursor for serine biosynthesis and an activator of AMP-activated protein kinase. Our 2,3-BPG phosphatase activity is encoded by the previously identified gene for multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MIPP1), which we now show to have dual substrate specificity. By genetically manipulating Mipp1 expression in Dictyostelium, we demonstrated that this enzyme provides physiologically relevant regulation of cellular 2,3-BPG content. Mammalian erythrocytes possess the highest content of 2,3-BPG, which controls oxygen binding to hemoglobin. We determined that total MIPP1 activity in erythrocytes at 37°C is 0.6 mmol 2,3-BPG hydrolyzed per liter of cells per h, matching previously published estimates of the phosphatase activity of BPGM. MIPP1 is active at 4°C, revealing a clinically significant contribution to 2,3-BPG loss during the storage of erythrocytes for transfusion. Hydrolysis of 2,3-BPG by human MIPP1 is sensitive to physiologic alkalosis; activity decreases 50% when pH rises from 7.0 to 7.4. This phenomenon provides a homeostatic mechanism for elevating 2,3-BPG levels, thereby enhancing oxygen release to tissues. Our data indicate greater biological significance of the Rapoport–Luebering shunt than previously considered.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Biosciences
Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute (NMHRI)
Subjects: Q Science > QR Microbiology
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
ISSN: 0027-8424
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 02:05
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/8811

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