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Genome-wide association for major depression through age at onset stratification

Power, Robert A., Tansey, Katherine E., Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle, Cohen-Woods, Sarah, Bigdeli, Tim, Hall, Lynsey S., Kutalik, Zoltán, Lee, S. Hong, Ripke, Stephan, Steinberg, Stacy, Teumer, Alexander, Viktorin, Alexander, Wray, Naomi R., Arolt, Volker, Baune, Bernard T., Boomsma, Dorret I., Børglum, Anders D., Byrne, Enda M., Castelao, Enrique, Craddock, Nicholas John, Craig, Ian, Dannlowski, Udo, Deary, Ian J., Degenhardt, Franziska, Forstner, Andreas J., Gordon, Scott D., Grabe, Hans J., Grove, Jakob, Hamilton, Steven P., Hayward, Caroline, Heath, Andrew C., Hocking, Lynne J., Homuth, Georg, Hottenga, Jouke J., Kloiber, Stefan, Krogh, Jesper, Landén, Mikael, Lang, Maren, Levinson, Douglas F., Lichtenstein, Paul, Lucae, Susanne, MacIntyre, Donald J., Madden, Pamela, Magnusson, Patrik K.E., Martin, Nicholas G., McIntosh, Andrew M., Middeldorp, Christel M., Milaneschi, Yuri, Montgomery, Grant W., Mors, Ole, Müller-Myhsok, Bertram, Nyholt, Dale R., Oskarsson, Hogni, Owen, Michael J., Padmanabhan, Sandosh, Penninx, Brenda W.J.H., Pergadia, Michele L., Porteous, David J., Potash, James B., Preisig, Martin, Rivera, Margarita, Shi, Jianxin, Shyn, Stanley I., Sigurdsson, Engilbert, Smit, Johannes H., Smith, Blair H., Stefansson, Hreinn, Stefansson, Kari, Strohmaier, Jana, Sullivan, Patrick F., Thomson, Pippa, Thorgeirsson, Thorgeir E., Van der Auwera, Sandra, Weissman, Myrna M., Consortium, CONVERGE, Consortium, CARDIoGRAM, Consortium, GERAD, Breen, Gerome and Lewis, Cathryn M. 2017. Genome-wide association for major depression through age at onset stratification. Biological Psychiatry 81 (4) , pp. 325-335. 10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.05.010

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Abstract

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a disabling mood disorder and, despite a known heritable component, a large meta-analysis of GWAS revealed no replicable genetic risk variants. Given prior evidence of heterogeneity by age-at-onset (AAO) in MDD, we tested whether genome-wide significant risk variants for MDD could be identified in cases subdivided by AAO. Method Discovery case-control GWASs were performed where cases were stratified using increasing/decreasing AAO-cutoffs; significant SNPs were tested in nine independent replication samples, giving a total sample of 22,158 cases and 133,749 controls for sub-setting. Polygenic score analysis was used to examine if differences in shared genetic risk exists between earlier and adult onset MDD with commonly co-morbid disorders of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease, and coronary artery disease. Results We identify one replicated genome-wide significant locus associated with adult-onset (>27 years) MDD (rs7647854, OR=1.16, 95%CI=1.11-1.21, p=5.2x10-11). Using polygenic score analyses, we show that earlier-onset MDD is genetically more similar to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder than adult-onset. Conclusions We demonstrate that using additional phenotype data previously collected by genetic studies to tackle phenotypic heterogeneity in MDD can successfully lead to the discovery of genetic risk factor despite reduced sample size. Furthermore, our results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to MDD differs between adult- and earlier-onset MDD, with earlier-onset cases having a greater genetic overlap with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Age at onset; GWAS; Heterogeneity; Major depressive disorder; Polygenic scoring; Stratification
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0006-3223
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 16 June 2016
Date of Acceptance: 5 May 2016
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2019 22:40
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/91879

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