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New routes to functionalize carbon black for polypropylene nanocomposites

Shepherd, Céline, Hadzifejzovic, Emina, Shkal, Fatma, Jurkschat, Kerstin, Moghal, Jonathan, Parker, Emily M., Sawangphruk, Montree, Slocombe, Daniel Rhys, Foord, John S. and Moloney, Mark G. 2016. New routes to functionalize carbon black for polypropylene nanocomposites. Langmuir 32 (31) , pp. 7917-7928. 10.1021/acs.langmuir.6b02013

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Abstract

Methods for chemical surface functionalization for carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were studied to produce (CB)/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites with superior electrical and thermal properties. Nanoparticle dispersion is known to directly control the extent to which nanocomposites maximize the unique attributes of their nanoscale fillers. As a result, tailored nanoparticle surface chemistry is a widely utilized method to enhance the interfacial interactions between nanoparticles and polymer matrices, assisting improved filler dispersion. In this work, a rapid chemical functionalization approach using a number of diarylcarbene derivatives, followed by the azo-coupling of substituted diazonium salts, for the covalent introduction of selected functional groups to the CB surface, is reported. Characterization of the modified CB by XPS, TGA, CHN, and ATR-IR collectively confirmed surface functionalization, estimating surface grafting densities of the order of 1013 and 1014 molecules/cm2. Nanocomposites, synthesized by solvent mixing PP with pristine and modified CB, demonstrated macroscopic property changes as a result of the nanoparticle surface functionalization. Pronounced improvements were observed for PP nanocomposites prepared with a dodecyl-terminated diaryl functionalized CB, in which TEM analysis established improved nanofiller dispersion owing to the enhanced CB-PP interfacial interactions in the nanocomposite. Observed dielectric relaxation responses at 20 wt % loading and a reduced percolation threshold realized conductivities of 1.19 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 10 wt %, compared to 2.62 × 10–15 S cm–1 for pristine CB/PP nanocomposites at the same filler loading. In addition, thermal properties signify an increase in the number of nucleation sites by the raised degree of crystallinity as well as increased melting and crystallization temperatures.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Publisher: ACS Publications
ISSN: 0743-7463
Date of Acceptance: 14 July 2016
Last Modified: 09 Jul 2019 14:19
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/94944

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