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The petrogenesis of Gorgona komatiites, picrites and basalts: New field, petrographic and geochemical constraints

Kerr, Andrew Craig, Marriner, G. F., Arndt, N. T., Tarney, J., Nivia, A., Saunders, A. D. and Duncan, R. A. 1996. The petrogenesis of Gorgona komatiites, picrites and basalts: New field, petrographic and geochemical constraints. Lithos 37 (2-3) , pp. 245-260.

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Abstract

Gorgona Island, Colombia is remarkable not only because it contains the only Phanerozoic komatiites, but also because it has mafic to ultramafic lavas with a wide range of compositions, from moderately enriched to extremely depleted (relative to Bulk Earth). The komatiite flows are, in many respects similar to Archaean komatiites; they formed from MgO-rich (18%) liquids and have upper spinifex zones and lower cumulate zones. The cumulate zones of Archaean komatiites contain many solid grains, in contrast more than 90% of the olivine in the Gorgona cumulates is highly skeletal. This combined with the fact that the Gorgona cumulate zones are thinner than those in Archaean komatiites, suggests that the komatiite magma became strongly superheated en route to the surface. The komatiites have trace element contents intermediate between those of the basalts and the ultramafic tuffs. Some basalts have isotope compositions indicative of long-term enrichment in incompatible elements, whereas other basalts and ultramafic volcanics have isotopic signatures that imply corresponding depletion. It is apparent that the plume source region of the Gorgona magmas was markedly heterogeneous, with at least two source components contributing to the observed variation in composition. This heterogeneity may have resulted from the incorporation of different components into the plume source, or it may be the result of complex melting and melt extraction processes during the ascent of a heterogeneous plume. Despite earlier suggestions that there may have been a significant age gap between depleted komatiite and basalt flows and the enriched basal& new 4oAr-39Ar dating of basalts and gabbros are more consistent with all being generated at 87 Ma during formation of the Caribbean/Colombian plateau, possibly at the Galapagos hotspot.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Earth and Ocean Sciences
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0024-4937
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 02:08
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/9571

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