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The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy guidelines for the management of Graves' Orbitopathy

Bartalena, Luigi, Baldeschi, Lelio, Boboridis, Kostas, Eckstein, Anja, Kahaly, George J., Marcocci, Claudio, Perros, Petros, Salvi, Mario, Wiersinga, Wilmar M, On behalf of the European Group on Graves'' Orbitopathy (EUGOGO), and Dayan, Colin Mark 2016. The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy guidelines for the management of Graves' Orbitopathy. European Thyroid Journal 5 (1) , pp. 9-26. 10.1159/000443828

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Abstract

Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Published Online
Status: Published
Schools: Medicine
Subjects: R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Additional Information: Participants of the EUGOGO Fotini Adamidou (Thessaloniki), Panagiotis Anagnostis (Thessaloniki), Goksun Ayvaz (Ankara), Claudio Azzolini (Varese), Antonella Boschi (Brussels), Claire Bournaud (Lyon), Lucy Clarke (Newcastle upon Tyne), Nicola Currò (Milan), Chantal Daumerie (Brussels), Colin Dayan (Cardiff), Dagmar Fuhrer (Essen), Onur Konuk (Ankara), Michele Marinò (Pisa), Daniel Morris (Cardiff), Marco Nardi (Pisa), Simon Pearce (Newcastle upon Tyne), Susanne Pitz (Mainz), Gottfried Rudovsky (Olten), Guia Vannucchi (Milan), Christine Vardanian (Lyon) and Georg von Arx (Olten).
Publisher: Karger Publishers
ISSN: 2235-0640
Date of Acceptance: 5 January 2016
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 09:29
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/95784

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