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A novel experimental approach to investigate the effect of different agitation methods using sodium hypochlorite as an irrigant on the rate of bacterial biofilm removal from the wall of a simulated root canal model

Mohmmed, Saif Alarab, Vianna, Morgana, Penny, Matthew R., Hilton, Stephen T., Mordan, Nicola and Knowles, Jonathan C. 2016. A novel experimental approach to investigate the effect of different agitation methods using sodium hypochlorite as an irrigant on the rate of bacterial biofilm removal from the wall of a simulated root canal model. Dental Materials 32 (10) , pp. 1289-1300. 10.1016/j.dental.2016.07.013

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Abstract

Objective. Root canal irrigation is an important adjunct to control microbial infection. This study aimed primarily to develop a transparent root canal model to study in situ Enterococcus faecalis biofilm removal rate and remaining attached biofilm using passive or active irrigation solution for 90 s. The change in available chlorine and pH of the outflow irrigant were assessed. Methods. A total of forty root canal models (n = 10 per group) were manufactured using 3D printing. Each model consisted of two longitudinal halves of an 18mm length simulated root canal with size 30 and taper 0.06. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3mm of the models for 10 days in Brain Heart Infusion broth. Biofilms were stained using crystal violet for visualization. The model halves were reassembled, attached to an apparatus and observed under a fluorescence microscope. Following 60 s of 9mL of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or activated using gutta-percha, sonic and ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Images were then captured every second using an external camera. The residual biofilm percentages were measured using image analysis software. The data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test and generalized linear mixed model. Results. The highest level of biofilm removal was with ultrasonic agitation (90.13%) followed by sonic (88.72%), gutta-percha (80.59%), and passive irrigation group (control) (43.67%) respectively. All agitation groups reduced the available chlorine and pH of NaOCl more than that in the passive irrigation group. Significance. The 3D printing method provided a novel modelto create a root canal simulation for studying and understanding a real-time biofilm removal under microscopy. Ultrasonic agitation of NaOCl left the least amount of residual biofilm in comparison to sonic and gutta-percha agitation methods.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
Subjects: R Medicine > RK Dentistry
Uncontrolled Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis; Biofilm; Sodium hypochlorite; Manual agitation; Automated agitation; 3D printing model
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0109-5641
Last Modified: 08 Dec 2017 11:23
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/97264

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