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International drug trafficking: past, present, and prospective trends

Giommoni, Luca, Gundur, R.V. and Cheekes, Erik 2020. International drug trafficking: past, present, and prospective trends. Oxford Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press (OUP), (10.1093/acrefore/9780190264079.013.470)

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Abstract

Since the early 20th century, the illegal drug trade has been of increasing focus throughout the world. However, the use of mind-altering substances predates attempts to prohibit or regulate them. Early control efforts date back to the teachings of Mohammed in the Koran, though wider-scale control efforts did not occur until the 18th century. Since that time, the control of illicit drugs has been commonplace throughout the world. Several illicit markets exist in responding to the ongoing demand. Four notable ones are cocaine, heroin, cannabis, and synthetically-produced, mind-altering substances. The production, transportation, and usage of these substances are all impacted by the histories of the producer, intermediary, and user countries. This entry explores how these drug trades have changed over time, forming trafficking routes, enterprises that trade in illicit drugs, and how geopolitical events have affected the drug trade. In addition, this entry explores current and future trends of the illicit drug trade, including the foray of sellers and buyers in the digital marketplace and the increasing number of jurisdictions that have legalised cannabis. It also provides a brief overview of how the illicit drug trade has been and can be studied.

Item Type: Book Section
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Social Sciences (Includes Criminology and Education)
Publisher: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 3 July 2020
Date of Acceptance: 10 April 2020
Last Modified: 13 May 2021 09:17
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/132986

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