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Impact of fuel hydrogen content on non-volatile particulate matter emitted from an aircraft auxiliary power unit measured with standardised reference systems

Durand, Eliot, Lobo, Prem, Crayford, Andrew, Sevcenco, Yura and Christie, Simon 2021. Impact of fuel hydrogen content on non-volatile particulate matter emitted from an aircraft auxiliary power unit measured with standardised reference systems. Fuel 287 , 119637. 10.1016/j.fuel.2020.119637
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Abstract

Replacement of conventional petroleum jet fuel with sustainable aviation fuels (SAFs) can significantly reduce non-volatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) emissions from aircraft main engines and auxiliary power units (APUs). As part of the Initiative Towards sustAinable Kerosene for Aviation (ITAKA) project, the impact of fuel hydrogen content on nvPM number and mass emissions and particle size distributions were investigated using a GTCP85 APU burning blends of conventional (Jet A-1) and Hydrotreated Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA)-derived (Used Cooking Oil and Camelina) aviation fuels. The measurements were conducted during two separate test campaigns performed three years apart, each employing a different regulatory compliant sampling and measurement reference system for aircraft engine nvPM emissions. The objective was to investigate the correlation of fuel hydrogen content with nvPM number and mass emissions at the engine exit plane (EEP) independent of fuel composition, measurement system, and ambient conditions. The nvPM number and mass emissions and size distributions systematically decreased with increasing fuel hydrogen content regardless of the fuel composition or APU operating condition. The measured nvPM emissions were particle loss-corrected to the EEP and normalised to a common fuel hydrogen content. Similar rates of nvPM reductions were observed for both test campaigns at all investigated APU operating conditions, confirming that engine exit nvPM reductions correlate with fuel hydrogen content for fuels of relatively similar compositions. This analysis method can be applied to emissions data from other engine types to compare the reduction in nvPM emissions for sustainable aviation fuels and blends.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Engineering
Publisher: Elsevier
ISSN: 0016-2361
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 25 January 2021
Date of Acceptance: 28 October 2020
Last Modified: 26 Jan 2021 06:22
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/137859

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