Cardiff University | Prifysgol Caerdydd ORCA
Online Research @ Cardiff 
WelshClear Cookie - decide language by browser settings

Dental periodontal procedures: a systematic review of contamination (splatter, droplets and aerosol) in relation to COVID-19

Johnson, Ilona G., Jones, Rhiannon J., Gallagher, Jennifer E., Wade, William G., Al-yaseen, Waraf, Robertson, Mark, McGregor, Scott, C, Sukriti K., Innes, Nicola and Harris, Rebecca 2021. Dental periodontal procedures: a systematic review of contamination (splatter, droplets and aerosol) in relation to COVID-19. BDJ Open 7 , 15. 10.1038/s41405-021-00070-9

[img] PDF - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (1MB)
[img] PDF (Appendix 1) - Supplemental Material
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (201kB)
[img] PDF (Appendix 2) - Supplemental Material
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (203kB)
[img] PDF (Appendix 3) - Supplemental Material
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (196kB)
[img] PDF (Appendix 4) - Supplemental Material
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

Download (175kB)

Abstract

Introduction The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and subsequent COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on the delivery of routine dentistry; and in particular, periodontal care across the world. This systematic review examines the literature relating to splatter, droplet settle and aerosol for periodontal procedures and forms part of a wider body of research to understand the risk of contamination in relation to periodontal care procedures relevant to COVID-19. Methods A search of the literature was carried out using key terms and MeSH words relating to the review questions. Sources included Medline (OVID), Embase (OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of Science and LILACS, ClinicalTrials.Gov. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were screened in duplicate and data extraction was carried out using a template. All studies were assessed for methodological quality and sensitivity. Narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Fifty studies were included in the review with procedures including ultrasonic scaling (n = 44), air polishing (n = 4), prophylaxis (n = 2) and hand scaling (n = 3). Outcomes included bacterial (colony-forming units e.g. on settle plates) or blood contamination (e.g. visible splatter) and non bacterial, non blood (e.g. chemiluminescence or coloured dyes) contamination. All studies found contamination at all sites although the contamination associated with hand scaling was very low. Contamination was identified in all of the studies even where suction was used at baseline. Higher power settings created greater contamination. Distribution of contamination varied in relation to operator position and was found on the operator, patient and assistant with higher levels around the head of the operator and the mouth and chest of the patient. Settle was identified 30 min after treatments had finished but returned to background levels when measured at or after an hour. The evidence was generally low to medium quality and likely to underestimate contamination. Conclusion Ultrasonic scaling, air polishing and prophylaxis procedures produce contamination (splatter, droplets and aerosol) in the presence of suction, with a small amount of evidence showing droplets taking between 30 min and 1 h to settle. Consideration should be given to infection control, areas of cleaning particularly around the patient and appropriate personal protective equipment, with particular attention to respiratory, facial and body protection for these procedures. In addition, the use of lower power settings should be considered to reduce the amount and spread of contamination.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Dentistry
ISSN: 2056-807X
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 7 April 2021
Date of Acceptance: 1 March 2021
Last Modified: 07 Apr 2021 14:15
URI: http://orca.cf.ac.uk/id/eprint/140361

Actions (repository staff only)

Edit Item Edit Item

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year

View more statistics