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A novel method for the nitration of deactivated aromatic compounds

Smith, Keith, Gibbins, Tracy, Millar, Ross W. and Claridge, Robert P. 2000. A novel method for the nitration of deactivated aromatic compounds. Perkin 1 1 (16) , pp. 2753-2758. 10.1039/b002158j

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Novel nitration systems comprising nitric acid, trifluoroacetic anhydride and zeolite Hβ, with or without acetic anhydride, are described. The system having no acetic anhydride is more active and readily nitrates deactivated substrates such as nitrobenzene, benzonitrile, benzoic acid or 4-nitrotoluene to give predominantly the product substituted meta to the deactivating group. The system incorporating acetic anhydride is more moderate in activity, and nitrates moderately deactivated systems such as halogenobenzenes quantitatively within two hours at ice–salt bath temperature, and provides very high selectivity for the para-nitrated product. This system also nitrates 2-nitrotoluene to give high selectivity for 2,4-dinitrotoluene production. Furthermore, the system can be used for direct double nitration of toluene and gives a 92% yield of 2,4-dinitrotoluene with a 2,4-∶2,6-dinitrotoluene ratio of 25∶1. Even greater selectivity (96% yield and 70∶1 selectivity) can be achieved in the latter reaction by conducting the reaction in one flask but in two stages, with trifluoroacetic anhydride added only in the second stage.

Item Type: Article
Status: Published
Schools: Chemistry
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISSN: 1472-7781
Date of First Compliant Deposit: 30 March 2016
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 02:57

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