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A jet-driven, extreme high-velocity outflow powered by a cold, low-luminosity protostar near NGC 2023

Sandell, G., Avery, L. W., Baas, F., Coulson, I., Dent, W. R. F., Friberg, P., Gear, Walter Kieran, Greaves, J., Holland, W., Jenness, T., Jewell, P., Lightfoot, J., Matthews, H. E., Moriarty-Schieven, G., Prestage, R., Robson, E. I., Stevens, J., Tilanus, R. P. J. and Watt, G. D. 1999. A jet-driven, extreme high-velocity outflow powered by a cold, low-luminosity protostar near NGC 2023. Astrophysical Journal 519 (1) , pp. 236-243. 10.1086/307367

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We have discovered an extreme high-velocity bipolar CO outflow in the vicinity of NGC 2023, with total outflow velocities of ~200 km s-1. At very high velocities this outflow is jetlike with an opening angle ≤4°, while it shows a separate outflow lobe at low velocities. The outflow is bipolar and exhibits a clear mirror symmetry, which suggests that the source powering the outflow is episodic or precessing. The dynamical timescales for the outflow are ≤3000 yr. We identify the source driving the CO jet with a deeply embedded low-luminosity submillimeter double source (separation ~23''), where the primary component lies on the symmetry axis of the outflow and has all the signatures of a "class 0" protostellar object. Analysis of molecular data and (sub)millimeter photometry suggests that the driving source is cold and compact, with a luminosity of lesssim10 L☉ and a total mass of 1.8-4.6 M☉. It has no near-IR counterpart, it drives an extremely young outflow, and it emits a large fraction of its luminosity in the submillimeter regime. Both millimeter sources have low dust emissivity, β ~ 0.8-1.3, similar to what is found for other class 0 objects, while the surrounding molecular cloud core appears to have a β ~ 2.0, the canonical value for "normal" interstellar dust in the submillimeter regime.

Item Type: Article
Date Type: Publication
Status: Published
Schools: Physics and Astronomy
Subjects: Q Science > QB Astronomy
Uncontrolled Keywords: ISM: individual (NGC 2023); ISM: jets and outflows; ISM: molecules; stars: pre-main sequence
Publisher: Institute of Physics Science
ISSN: 0004-637X
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2017 04:16

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